Subject-Verb Agreement
Both and Each

When the words both and each come before a noun, they are
pronouns and act as the subject of the sentence.
Both means
'this one and that one' or 'these ones and those ones'; it can
also mean 'this one and those ones' or 'these ones and that
one'. The word
both can come before a plural subject or
stand alone as the subject, and requires a plural verb
.
Take a look at the picture to the left.  It shows two young
parents with a baby.

Both parents love the baby.

In this sentence, the word both comes before a third-person
plural noun,
parents. The verb love is also third-person plural.
Let's look at another sentence.

Each parent loves the baby.

Notice how replacing the word both with each changes the
structure of the sentence.
The word
each means 'this one and that one', and that's all it can
mean.
Each always takes a singular or a collective (group) noun,
or it can be the subject of the sentence. The word
each requires
a third-person singular verb. So, in the sentence

Each parent loves the baby.

we correctly find a third-person singular noun,
parent, and
love
s, a third-person singular verb.
Which form of the verb
to be would you use in the following
sentences?
Both _____ tired.
Each _____  tired.

The subject of the first sentence is the plural adjective, both,
which requires the plural form of to be:
are. In the second
sentence, the subject is singular, so the verb form must be
singular as well; the verb in the second sentence should be
is.
So far so good?
Translation: is everything fine up to this point in time?
Both and each are frequently followed by prepositional phrases.
In these instances, they are the subject of the sentence. Do you
remember why?
That's right! Because the subject of a sentence is almost never
part of a prepositional phrase. So which form of the verb
to feel
would you use in the following sentences?

Each of the parents _______ happy.
Both of the parents _______ happy
.

If you chose
feels for the first sentence, and feel for the
second, you are correct. Even though the plural noun
parents
comes directly before the verb in each sentence, it is part of a
prepositional phrase. The subject of the first sentence is
each,
and the subject of the second is
both.
Are you ready for an expert level question? Which form of the
verb
to be would you use in this sentence?  

Each of the parents, regardless of how tired they are, __
happy.
 
There are many words separating the verb from the subject in
this sentence. This sometimes make it difficult to choose the
proper verb form. Did you pick
is? Then you are absolutely
correct. You're a
both and each expert!   
What Person?
Singular
1st person:
I love
2nd person:
you love
3rd person:
he, it or she loves
Plural:
1st person:
we love
2nd person:
you love
3rd person:
they love
Both parents have
full-time jobs.
Prepositional Phrase
A prepositional
phrase is a group of
words that begins
with a preposition
and ends with a noun
or adjective.
Each parent has a
full-time job.
Some Common
Propositions
about, at, beside, by,
for, from, of, over,
to, under, with
Be Careful!
When both and each
come after a noun,
they  are adjectives.
Example:
The parents each
love the baby.
Notice that the
third-person plural
form of the verb is
used because the
subject of the
sentence is
parents.
Why does the
sentence 'Each of the
parents feels happy'
sound so strange?
Because many native
English speakers
would mistakenly use
the verb
feel instead!
These types of
questions are
included on Praxis I
because they are
such a common
problem.
Remember!
The subject of a sentence is almost never part of a
prepositional phrase.
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